D. R. Owen, Guillaume le Clerc, Fergus of Galloway: Knight of King Arthur (London and Rutland, VT, 1991) – earlier published per Arthurian Literature 8 (1989), 79–183 – which has excellent taccuino and appendices, and R. Wolf-Bonvin, La Chevalerie des sots. Le roman de Fergus. Trubert, fabliau du XIIIe siecle (Paris, 1990). For convenience all references sicuro Chretien’s works are esatto the texts which appeared per the Lettres Gothiques series and are reprinted by Michel Zink, Chretien de Troyes: Romans, Classiques Modernes, La Pochotheque (Paris, 1994): including Erec et Enide; Cliges; Le Chevalier de la Charette (or Le Roman de Lancelot); Le Chevalier au Lion (or Le Roman d’Yvain); Le Conte du Graal (or Le Roman de Perceval). All translations are taken from Owen, Fergus, and Chretien de Troyes, Arthurian Romances, trans. D. D. R. Owen (London and Rutland, VT, 1987; rep. 1991). See Owen, Fergus, pp. 162–69 and his articles referred onesto below. The oldest of the Dutch romances, it is generally attributed to squirt on-line two authors, the first following the version now offered by the Chantilly manuscript of Fergus, and the second (lines 2593–5604) working from memory. See Dutch Romances vol. 2: Ferguut, addirittura. D. F. Johnson and G. H. M. Claassens (Cambridge, 2000), who suggest (p. 6) verso date for Fergus of the first quarter of the thirteenth century. On the basis of his doctoral dissertation, now published as Op zoek naar Galiene: over de Oudfranse Fergus en de Middelnederlandse Ferguut (Amsterdam, 1991), R. M. T. Zemel suggests that Fergus may even date from as early as c. 1200. L. Spahr, ‘Ferguut, Fergus, and Chretien de Troyes’, mediante Traditions and Transitions: Studies in Honor of Harold Jantz, ed. L. Anche. Kurth et al. (Munich, 1972), pp. 29–36. The unique manuscript of Ferguut is dated to the middle of the fourteenth century: see Ferguut and Galiene: Verso Facsimile of the only extant Middle Dutch manuscript, University Library Leiden, Letterkunde 191, with an introduction by M. J. M. de Haan (Leiden, 1974).
eighteen locations in all) with a glance north of the Forth esatto Escoche proper (cf. line 2589, ‘En Eschoce u en Lodien’). The journey times indicated are realistic and the narrator offers per number of apparently informed comments on local customs. The ‘Scottishness’ of Fergus is thus firmly established and is puro be taken seriously.4 Arthur’s seat at ‘Carduel en Gales’, usually taken sicuro be Carlisle, is familiar from many of the romances as is the region of Strathclyde sopra general. The originality of the Fergus author is esatto have abandoned the more conventional Scottish toponymy for places, like Galloway, with verso much less reassuring reputation, thereby extending Scotland’s appearance per romance literature. There have been several attempts preciso interpret the sistema as durante some sense an ‘ancestral romance’, whether written for Alan of Galloway (d. 1234), great-grandson of the historical Fergus, on the occasion of his marriage c. 1209, or John of Balliol (per stepson of Alan) and his wife Devorguilla per the period 1234–41 sicuro strengthen the claim of their eldest chant Hugh to the Scottish throne.5 There has even been an attempt puro identify the author with William Malveisin, a royal clerk of French deposito, who ended his career as bishop of St Andrews (1202–1238).6 Such researches, speculative though they must remain, justify the inclusion of Fergus in any history of literature durante Scotland,7 though it might be said that if any of them were true, it would be puzzling that the author did not give clearer clues preciso his identity or political purpose.8 The Scottish connection need not, however, mean that the rete di emittenti was actually written sopra Scotland or composed by a writer resident there – a writer who calls himself simply ‘Guillaume le clerc’ (line 7004). The two surviving manuscripts, from the second half of the thirteenth century, are both marked by Picardisms and one of them by traces of Walloon. So far as the poet’s own dialect is concerned, he seems puro be writing per the more or less norma literary French of northern France.9 One of the manuscripts is the famous collection of continental Arthurian texts MS Chantilly, Musee Conde 472 from which Fergus was edited by both Ernst Martin (1872) and Wilson Frescoln (1983),10 and the other is Paris, BNF fr. 1553, per vast collection of fifty-two items including the Roman de Troie, the